Cardiac Catheterization:: This medical procedure is used to diagnose and treat some heart conditions. A cardiologist inserts a cathether - long, thin, flexible tube - into a blood vessel in your forearm, groin, or neck and threads it into your heart. Your doctor can do diagnostic tests and treatments on your heart through the catheter.
Coronary Artery Stenting: A stent is a small mesh tube, usually made of metal, that is placed in a artery during a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty involves threading a catheter with a balloon on the tip through a blood vessel to a narrow or blocked artery. The balloon is inflated to open the artery and then a stent is placed to help support the inner wall of the artery. Stents are placed to improve blood flow.
Radial Access Techniques: During cardiac catheterization (see cardiac catheterization), a thin, flexible tube is inserted into the femoral artery (in the groin) to reach the heart. Using this artery requires the patient to lie down for several hours after the procedure to prevent bleeding. This method can be difficult for patients who are obese, have peripheral artery disease, take anti-coagulants, or have orthopedic problems in the spine or hip. When the radial artery (in the wrist) is used instead, it is easier to compress the insertion site after the procedure, enabling the patient to be mobile almost immediately. The patient also may be discharged faster following a procedure. There would also be less risk of bleeding after the procedure
Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS): This diagnostic procedure uses a catheter (see cardiac catheterization), to obtain a real-time view of the inside of a coronary artery using ultrasound. It can reveal in high detail the amount of narrowing or thickening of an artery and may be used before or after a procedure to open a blocked artery.
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): This type of imaging uses light inside the blood vessels of the heart. It provides the highest level of detail in imaging of the blood vessels of the heart. It helps measure the exact size and length of the blockage before inserting the sent. It also provides valuable information about the reasons of the blockage and at times, might change the medical management.
Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR): This technique is used in coronary catheterization (see cardiac catheterization) to measure pressure differences across a narrowed artery to determine whether the blockage is significant enough to warrant treatment.
Rotational Atherectomy: This is an interventional coronary procedure (see cardiac catheterization) to help open coronary arteries blocked with more calcified material and restore blood flow to the heart. This is done by mechanically breaking the solid (calcified) material that blocks the blood vessel of the heart.